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The Bhoj Wetland is comprised of two lakes in the central state of India, Madhya Pradesh. The two lakes of Bhopal, the Upper Lake and the Lower Lake are manmade lakes, which are located in the western part of the state capital, Bhopal. The Upper Lake covers an area of about 31 sq km with a watershed area of about 361 sq km and the Lower Lake is sprawled over an area of about 1.29 sq km and has its watershed area of around 9.6 sq km. The Lower Lake also collects the oozing water from the surface of the Upper Lake.
It is believed that the Upper Lake was constructed by the ruler of Malwa, King Bhoj. He only established the state capital, Bhopal and is believed to be named after him only. It was constructed out to secure the eastern frontier of his kingdom. It was actually constructing in the process of building an earthen dam across the Kolan River.
The Lower Lake was formed in the year 1794 by Nawab Chhote Khan, Minister of Nawab Hayath Mohammad Khan. He created the lake for the additional charm of the city. Both the lakes houses to a variety of flora and fauna.
The lake houses to more than 20,000 birds, which includes domestic as well as the migratory ones. The diverse flora consists of 106 species of Macrophytes, which belongs to 87 genera of 46 families including14 rare species and 208 species of Phytoplankton comprising 106 species of Chlorophyceae, 34 species of Euglenophyceae, 27 species of Bacilariophyceae and 4 species of Dinophyceae and 37 species of Cyanophyceae.
The fauna in the wetland consists of 105 species of Zooplanktons, which includes Cladocera 14, Copedoda 5, Ostracode 9, Coleoptera 11, Rotifera 41, Protozoa 10 and Diptera 25. Here in the pace there are 43 species of fishes, 27 species of avifauna with 98 species of insects and over 10 species of reptiles and amphibians.